Thursday, June 16, 2011

Solar generator splits water to make hydrogen | Green Tech - CNET News

BOSTON--One of the barriers to the long-hoped-for hydrogen economy is an energy source for hydrogen. Nanoptek is one company that's tapping the sun's energy.

The Maynard, Mass., company this week said it is taking orders for a commercial solar hydrogen generator, which it expects to pilot test later this year. The company showed a smaller prototype of its product at the TechConnect conference here.

These specially-coated titanium strips react to sunlight to produce hydrogen from water pumped into the device.

(Credit: Martin LaMonica/CNET)

Nanoptek envisions creating a system for storing energy from solar at large scale, making hydrogen for vehicles, and even home fueling. In the nearer term, though, the company is seeking to sell solar generators to businesses that now buy tanks of hydrogen for industrial use.

The company's product, called the Solar Hydrogen Generator 300, is bigger than a typical solar photovoltaic panel, measuring two meters wide and one meter high. Like a traditional electrolyzer, it sends a current through water to break apart the hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The hydrogen is stored in tanks and used in a fuel cell to make electricity.

What's different is that Nanoptek's device can produce hydrogen from water using about one-third the energy of a typical electrolyzer, said CEO John Guerra. The key is a nanomaterial coating on titanium that captures a relatively broad spectrum of sunlight, including ultraviolet light, he explained.

Its photocatalyst material is a titanium dioxide nanostructure that's baked onto strips of titanium metal. That coating "stresses" the surface of the titanium, which has the advantage of making it easier for it to release an electron and start a flow of electricity in sunlight, Guerra explained.

Because the photo catalyst reacts well to ultraviolet light, the solar hydrogen generator can work well on cloudy days, he added. The company calls it a hybrid device because the generator can operate as a traditional electrolyzer from grid power when there is no sunlight available.

A prototype solar hydrogen generator. The solar PV panel provides the voltage needed to split water, making it more efficient.

(Credit: Martin LaMonica/CNET)

The company's panel includes both strips of titanium and a row of photovoltaic cells, which provide voltage for the water splitting to occur and make the process more efficient. As water is pumped in, the hydrogen gas captured.

The idea of making hydrogen as an energy carrier for vehicles and grid storage has been around for years, but there are a number of technical barriers, such storing hydrogen in a small footprint and finding inexpensive catalyst materials. Also, there isn't a distribution infrastructure for transporting hydrogen apart from transporting tanks.

Still, with growing interest in cleaner energy, there remains a lot of research and development work. SunCatalytix, which was spun out of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is working on what it calls an "artificial leaf" also designed to make hydrogen from water using a solar photovoltaic cell.

In addition to technical challenges, finding customers willing to try out the new technology is also a challenge. Nanoptek will first target the industrial gas market with an eye toward grid storage and off-grid applications over time, Guerra said.

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